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A lot of old jewelry such as Victorian Jewelry was not marked.
So now what, how can you work it out if there are no date and value tips to go on? A Victorian brooch with a long pin stem extending outward is a good indication that it's early Victorian while a shorter one is of a later date.
There are several tests in determining Authentic Antique and Vintage Bakelite Jewelry using Formula 409, Hot Water, Simichrome Polish and a Q-Tip.
Still, some Bakelite such as Black Bakelite may not test positive.
That's one way of knowing the piece is at least 60 years old and more.
Many costume pieces from the nineteenth century and into the Art Deco period were made of gold and/or silver over base metals such as gold over brass, silver over brass, silver over copper, gold over copper, etc.
If you see a marking such as "1/20 12K on Sterling" then 1/5 of the piece is 12K gold and is likely to be from 1942 to 1945.
Vintage Bakelite which is a Polymeric Plastic invented by Leo Hendrik Baekeland in 1907, became popular in jewelry design during the hardships of World War II also.
Since Bakelite is either cast or molded it would not have a seam line anywhere and the workmanship should look hand carved and not be crudely executed as if a stamp was used.
On Vintage Bakelite brooches, the clasp would be embedded into the piece.